Emile Durkheim (born April 15, 1858, France – died November 15, 1917, Paris) was a French philosopher and sociologist of Hebrew origin, the founder of the French school of sociology, with the largest contribution in establishing academic sociology as science and the humanities acceptance.
Emile Durkheim in his family there was a strong religious tradition, and he studied Hebrew and Talmudic doctrine. Emile Durkheim and his doctorate in philosophy, and his thesis title were “On the social division of labor.” The main thesis was accompanied by a complementary sentence written in Latin.
In the years 1885-1886 in Paris studying social sciences and continues in Germany under the direction of Wilhelm Wundt. In Germany published three articles: “Recent studies on social sciences”, “positive science and morality in Germany” and “philosophy in German universities.”
Since 1882 teaches at two schools in the province, and in 1887 he was noticed by Louis Liard (Director of Higher Education in the Ministry of Public Instruction) and thus became professor of pedagogy and social science at the University of Bordeaux – this is the first course taught in Sociology a university. In autumn 1887, he married Louise Dreyfus, the daughter of a Parisian industrialist specializing in boiler room.
In 1902 appointed lecturer in science education at the Sorbonne and Professor of Pedagogy in 1906, the year when teaching and sociology. In the same year will teach and pedagogy department of the faculty of letters in Paris. In 1913, the department has received the title of “chair of sociology” of the Sorbonne.
Hit the death of his only son, André (fell in front of Thessaloniki); Durkheim dies on November 15, 1917, just 59 years old. His scientific work is very broad, including, besides rich publishing activity (articles and critical reviews), and numerous books.
One of the theoretical issued by the French founder of sociology is certainly the concept of “integration”. Why and how to integrate individuals into society? Integrating cross from one end to the other research conducted by Durkheim. Since his “About social division of labor” (1893), the question of the nature and cause of the development of modern societies towards greater differentiation of social functions, Durkheim raises the question of the origin of social order, dispute artificial explanations, by convention, propose a theory based on rules and sanctions, as the initial conditions of all existence in society.
If you borrow from Herbert Spencer general thesis of the evolution of modern societies towards greater division of labor in his analysis departs from the theory. For Durkheim, this change occurs not because the macro is required and corresponds to certain finality, but that is due to a mechanical cause such as increased volume, the density of population and social relations. These ideas are repeated and thorough in Suicide (1897).
Another important work (“elementary forms of religious life”) defines the religious essence of the sacred. I have to add sacred beliefs, rituals and church, symbol of the communion of the faithful. Sacred is a collective and impersonal.
Integration is a key concept for the sociology of education and the family, two institutions that contribute to the socialization of individuals.
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